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Jargon Buster

The Jargon Buster includes information about acronyms and abbreviations, as well as explanations of words and phrases commonly used in information about services for children, young people and families.

If you cannot find what you need, or would like further help with using the Family Services Directory and SEND Local Offer you can contact us in a number of ways.

Information for this Jargon Buster has been gathered from a range of sources including the 'Special educational needs and disability code of practice: 0 to 25 years - 2014'

 

A

AA: Access Arrangements

Academy: A state-funded school in England that is directly funded by the Department for Education, through the Education Funding Agency. Academies are self-governing and independent of local authority control.

Academy Converter: All schools that have chosen through Governing Body resolution and application to the Secretary of state an Academy under the Academies Act 2010:

Academy Special: Special schools that have chosen through Governing Body resolution and application to the Secretary of state to become an Academy under the Academies Act 2010. These will be handled differently to academy Convertors and will followa different process which is currently being developed.

Academy Sponsor Led: Academies are state-funded schools established and managed by sponsors from a wide range of backgrounds, including high performing schools and colleges, universities, individual philanthorpists, businesses, the voluntary sector and the faith communities.

Access to Work: An Access to Work grant from the Department for Work and Pensions helps to pay for practical support for young people and adults who have a disability, health or mental health condition so they can start work, stay in work or start their own business. It can pay for things like special equipment, fares to work if public transport is not practical, a support worker or coach in the workplace or a communicator at a job interview.

Act: A law that has been passed by Parliment

ADD*:Attention Deficit Disorder

Additional Learning Support: This is what further education describe special education needs as.

ADHD*: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

AFC: Action for Children

AMBDA*: Associate Member of the British Dyslexia Association

Advocate: An independent person or organisation who will give children and young people information or support to make a decision.

Annual review: the review of an EHC plan which the local authority must make as a minimum every 12 months.

APC*: Assessment Practising Certificate

APPS*: Assessment Placement Provision

AR: Annual Review

Armed Forces Covenant: The armed forces covenant sets out the relationship between the nation, the government and the armed forces. It recognises that the whole nation has a moral obligation to members of the armed forces and their families and it establishes how they should expect to be treated. The Covenant states that the children of service personnel should have the same standard of, and access to, education (including early years services) as any other UK citizen in the area in which they live.

ASD*: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (sometimes called Autism)

AX*: Assessment

* Specific SEND acronyms 

B

BBC: Boston Borough Council

BDA*: British Dyslexia Association

BESD*: Behaviour, Emotional and Social Difficulties

BME: Black and Ethnic Minority

BS: Business Support

* Specific SEND acronyms 

C

CAF*: Common Assessment Framework

CAMHs*: Child adolescent mental health service

Care Plan (SEN): A record of the health and/or social care services that are being provided to a child or young person to help them manage a disability or health condition. The Plan will be agreed with the child’s parent or the young person and may be contained within a patient’s medical record or maintained as a separate document. Care Plans are also maintained by local authorities for looked after children – in this instance the Care Plan will contain a Personal Education Plan in addition to the health and social care elements.

Care Plan (Leaving Care): The care plan is to make sure the pathway plan is kept up, that you are still being spoken to and that you have money to continue your education/get a job. 

CCPNR*: Children's Community Psychiatric Nurse

Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS): These services assess and treat children and young people with emotional, behavioural or mental health difficulties. They range from basic pastoral care, such as identifying mental health problems, to specialist ‘Tier 4’ CAMHS, which provide in-patient care for those who are severely mentally ill.

Child Arrangements Order (previously called a Residence Order): A court order that says where you live and how to contact you is called a Child Arrangements Order. 

Children and young people’s secure estate: This comprises three types of establishment – secure children’s homes, secure training centres and young offender institutions.

CIN*: Child in Need

CoL: City of Lincoln Council

Community School: The Local Authority employs the school's staff, owns the school's land and buildings and is the admissions authority (it has primary responsibility for deciding the arrangements for admitting pupils).

Community Special School: A community special school is the special school equilvalent of mainstream Comunity schools yet are catered wholly  or mainly for children with statutory statements of special educational needs.

Comprehensive Health Assessment Tool (CHAT):An assessment tool for young people in the youth justice system. It ensures that young people in the secure estate and in the community receive a comprehensive assessment of their 257 physical and mental health, substance misuse and neuro-disability needs on entry to the system.

Compulsory school age: A child is of compulsory school age from the beginning of the term following their 5th birthday until the last Friday of June in the year in which they become 16, provided that their 16th birthday falls before the start of the next school year.

CPR: Child Protection Register

CP: Child Protection or if you’re a medic could mean cerebral palsy

CP: Community Paediatrician

CT: Class Teacher

CTCChild Tax Credit. You could get Child Tax Credit for each child you’re responsible for if they’re under 16 or under 20 and in approved education or training. You don’t need to be working to claim Child Tax Credit. You get money for each child that qualifies and Child Tax Credit won’t affect your Child Benefit. How much you get depends on your circumstances - you can use the tax credit calculator to work this out.

CTH*: Ceiling Tract Hoist

CTM: Ceased to Maintain

CWD*: Children with disabilities

CYP: Children/Young People

CYPS: Children and Young People Services

* Specific SEND acronyms 

D

DCD*: Developmental Co-ordination Disorder

DDA*: Disability Discrimination Act

DFG*: Disabled Facilities Grant

Disabled Students Allowance (DSA): An allowance for undergraduate or post-graduate students who have a disability or long-term health condition, mental health condition or specific learning difficulty such as dyslexia or dyspraxia which affects their ability to study. It can be used to pay for things such as special equipment, a note-taker or transport costs.

Disagreement resolution: This is a statutory service commissioned by local authorities to provide a quick and non-adversarial way of resolving disagreements between parents or young people and bodies responsible for providing education, whether the child or young person has an EHC plan or not, or health and social care in relation to EHC assessments and plans. Disagreement resolution services can also be used in cases of disagreement between local authorities and health commissioning bodies during EHC needs assessments, the drawing up of EHC plans or the reviewing of those plans.

DBS: Disclosure and Barring Service

DLA: Disability Living Allowance

DMD*: Duchennes Muscular Dystrophy

DP: Direct payment

DO*: Dyslexia Outreach

DOB: Date of Birth

DP: Data Protection

DSA*: Disabled Student's Allowance

* Specific SEND acronyms 

E

Early Help Assessment: A social care assessment of a child and his or her family, designed to identify needs at an early stage and enable suitable interventions to be put in place to support the family.

Early Support Programme: The Early Support Programme co-ordinates health, education and social care support for the parents and carers of disabled children and young people from birth to adulthood. A key worker is assigned to families that join the Programme.

Early Years and Childcare Support (EYCC): Early Years and Childcare Support is committed to working in partnership with all Early Years providers and professionals to achieve the highest standards of inclusive, quality early years provision for children and families.  EYCC seeks to provide a range of activities and services by working with all early years providers, the Early Years Locality Teams and the county’s network of Children’s Centres, in order to improve parent and child attachment, child development, school readiness and the prevention of escalation to specialist services.

Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS): The foundation stage begins when children reach the age of three. Many children attend an early education setting soon after their third birthday. The foundation stage continues until the end of the reception year and is consistent with the National Curriculum. It prepares children for learning in Year 1, when programmes of study for Key Stage 1 are taught.

Early Years ProviderA provider of early education places for children under five years of age. This can include state-funded and private nurseries as well as child minders.

Early Years Specialist Teacher: Based within the Early Years Locality Teams, an Early Years Specialist Teacher monitors and tracks the progress of vulnerable children and provides support to Early Years providers in meeting the needs of vulnerable children and children with Special Educational Needs and/or Disabilities

EBD*: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties.

ECLIPS*: Extended Communication and Language Impairment for Students

Ed Psyc*: Educational Psychologist

Education Funding Agency (EFA): An arm of the Department for Education that manages the funding for learners between the ages of 3 and 19 years and for those with SEN or disabilities between the ages of 3 and 25. The EFA allocates funding to 152 local authorities for maintained schools and voluntary aided schools. It is also responsible for funding and monitoring academies, University 258 Technical Colleges, studio schools and free schools, as well as building maintenance programmes for schools and sixth-form colleges.

Education, Health and Care plan (EHC plan): An EHC plan details the education, health and social care support that is to be provided to a child or young person who has SEN or a disability. It is drawn up by the local authority after an EHC needs assessment of the child or young person has determined that an EHC plan is necessary, and after consultation with relevant partner agencies.

EFA: Education Funding Agency

EHC Plan: Education, Health and Care Plan

Elected members: The elected members of a county council or unitary local authority (as opposed to the salaried officials of the council or local authority). Some elected members have a lead responsibility for specific areas of policy, for example the Lead Member for Children’s Services.

ELDC: East Lindsey District Council

ESA: Employment and Support Allowance. A UK Government state benefit introduced on 27 October 2008. The benefit replaced Incapacity Benefit (IB), Income Support (IS) paid because of an illness or disability and Severe Disablement Allowance (SDA).

ESCO*: Early Support Care Co-ordinator

EP*: Educational Psychologist

EWO*: Education Welfare Officer

EY: Early Years

EYEEarly years Entitlement. All 3 to 4-year-olds in England can get 570 hours of free early education or childcare per year. This is usually taken as 15 hours each week for 38 weeks of the year. Some 2-year-olds are also eligible.

EYFS: Early Years Foundation Stage

* Specific SEND acronyms 

F

FAST*: Family Assessment and Support Team

First-tier Tribunal (Special Educational Needs and Disability): An independent body which has jurisdiction under section 333 of the Education Act 1996 for determining appeals by parents against local authority decisions on EHC needs assessments and EHC plans. The Tribunal’s decision is binding on both parties to the appeal. The Tribunal also hears claims of disability discrimination under the Equality Act 2010.

FIS: Family Information Service

FOI: Freedom of Information

Foundation School: In Foundation schools the governing body is the employer and the admissions authority. The schools land and buildings are either owned by the governing body or by a charitable foundation.

Free school: A free school is a type of academy, which is free to attend, but is not controlled by the local authority. Free schools receive state funding via the Education Funding Agency. Parents, teachers, businesses or charities can submit an application to the Department for Education to set up a free school.

FSD: Family Service Directory

Further education (FE) college: A college offering continuing education to young people over the compulsory school age of 16. The FE sector in England includes general further education colleges, sixth form colleges, specialist colleges and adult education institutes.

FWT: Families Working Together

* Specific SEND acronyms 

G

GLD*: General Learning Difficulties

GP*: General Practitioner

Graduated approach: A model of action and intervention in early education settings, schools and colleges to help children and young people who have special educational needs. The approach recognises that there is a continuum of special educational needs and that, where necessary, increasing specialist expertise should be brought to bear on the difficulties that a child or young person may be experiencing.

* Specific SEND acronyms 

H

Health and Wellbeing Board: A Health and Wellbeing Board acts as a forum where local commissioners across the NHS, social care and public health work together to improve the health and wellbeing of their local population and reduce health inequalities. The boards are intended to increase democratic input into strategic decisions about health and wellbeing services, strengthen working relationships between health and social care and encourage integrated commissioning of health and social care services.

Healthwatch England: Healthwatch England is an independent consumer champion, gathering and representing the views of the public about health and social care services in England. It operates both at a national and local level and ensures the views of the public and people who use services are taken into account. Healthwatch England works as part of the Care Quality Commission.

Healthy Child Programme: The Healthy Child Programme covers pregnancy and the first five years of a child’s life, focusing on a universal preventative service that provides families with a programme of screening, immunisation, health and development reviews, supplemented by advice around health, wellbeing and parenting.

HOS: Hospital School.

HI*: Hearing Impaired

HT: Head Teacher

* Specific SEND acronyms 

I

IEP: Individual Education Plan

Independent Reviewing Officer (IRO): The appointment of an IRO is a statutory requirement for local authorities under the Adoption and Children Act 2002. IROs make an important contribution to the goal of significantly improving outcomes for looked after children. Their primary focus is to quality assure the care planning process for each child, and to ensure that his or her current wishes and feelings are given full consideration.

Independent school: A school that is not maintained by a local authority and is registered under section 464 of the Education Act 1996. Section 347 of the Act sets out the conditions under which an independent school may be approved by the Secretary of State as being suitable for the admission of children with EHC plans.

Independent supporter: A person recruited locally by a voluntary or community sector organisation to help families going through an EHC needs assessment and the process of developing an EHC plan. This person is independent of the local authority and will receive training, including legal training, to enable him or her to provide this support.

J

JCQ: Joint Council for Qualifications

Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA): Joint strategic needs assessments (JSNAs) analyse the health needs of populations to inform and guide commissioning of health, wellbeing and social care services within local authority areas. The JSNA’s central role is to act as the overarching primary evidence base for health and wellbeing boards to decide on key local health priorities.

JSA: Job Seekers Allowance

K

KS: Key Stage

L

LA: Local Authority

LAC*: Looked after child

LADO: Local Authority Dedicated Officer (handling allegations)

LAS*: Level Access Shower

LCC: Lincolnshire County Council

LD: Learning disability

LEA: Local Education Authority

LLDD*: Learners with Learning Difficulties and Disabilities. Lincolnshire is commited to providing Post 16 learners with a learning difficulty and/or disability (LLDD) with high quality local opportunities for learning skills that are relevant to their individual needs and aspirations for their future lives.

Local Offer: Local authorities in England are required to set out in their Local Offer information about provision they expect to be available across education, health and social care for children and young people in their area who have SEN or are disabled, including those who do not have Education, Health and Care (EHC) plans. Local authorities must consult locally on what provision the Local Offer should contain.

LSCB: Lincolnshire Safeguarding Children Board

* Specific SEND acronyms 

M

M&H: Moving & Handling

Maintained school: For the purposes of this Code, schools in England that are maintained by a local authority – any community, foundation or voluntary school, community special or foundation special school.

Makaton: Makaton is a language programme using signs and symbols to help people to communicate. It is designed to support spoken language and the signs and symbols are used with speech, in spoken word order.

Mediation: This is a statutory service commissioned by local authorities which is designed to help settle disagreements between parents or young people and local authorities over EHC needs assessments and plans and which parents and young people can use before deciding whether to appeal to the First-Tier Tribunal about decisions on assessment or the special educational element of a plan. Mediation can cover any one or all three elements of an EHC plan and must be offered to the parent or young person when the final plan is issued, but they are not able to appeal to the Tribunal about the health and social care aspects of the plan.

MLD*: Moderate Learning Difficulties.

MAM: Multi Agency Meeting

* Specific SEND acronyms 

N

NAS: National Autistic Society

National curriculum: This sets out a clear, full and statutory entitlement to learning for all pupils, determining what should be taught and setting attainment targets for learning. It also determines how performance will be assessed and reported.

National Offender Management Service (NOMS): NOMS is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice. It is responsible for the running of prison and probation services, rehabilitation services for prisoners leaving prison, ensuring support is available to stop people re-offending, contract managing private sector prisons and services such as the Prisoner Escort Service and electronic tagging, and contract managing 35 Probation Trusts.

NHS Continuing Care: NHS Continuing Care is support provided for children and young people under 18 who need a tailored package of care because of their disability, an accident or illness.

NHS Continuing Healthcare: NHS Continuing Healthcare is the name given to a package of care that is arranged and funded solely by the NHS for individuals aged 18 and over who are not in hospital but have complex ongoing healthcare needs. It can be provided in any setting, for example in the home or in a residential care home.

NHS England: NHS England is an independent body, at arm’s length to the government and held to account through the NHS Mandate. Its main role is to improve health outcomes for people in England by providing national leadership for improving outcomes and driving up the quality of care; overseeing the operation of clinical commissioning groups; allocating resources to clinical commissioning groups, and commissioning primary care and specialist services.

NHS Foundation Trust: NHS foundation trusts are not-for-profit corporations that provide NHS hospital, mental health and ambulance services. NHS foundation trusts are not directed by the Government, but are accountable to their local communities through their members and governors, to their commissioners bthrough contracts and to Parliament through their annual report and accounts. Foundation trusts are registered with and inspected by the Care Quality Commission.

NHS Mandate: The NHS Mandate is issued by the government to NHS England. It sets out the government’s ambition for the National Health Service and provides direction to NHS England. The mandate will be reviewed annually.

NHS Trust: NHS trusts are public sector bodies that provide community health, hospital, mental health and ambulance services on behalf of the NHS in England and Wales. Each trust is headed by a board consisting of executive and non-executive directors, and is chaired by a non-executive director.

NIL: Note in Lieu

NKDC: North Kesteven District Council

Non-maintained special school: Schools in England approved by the Secretary of State under section 342 of the Education Acct 1996 as special schools which are not maintained by the state but charge fees on a non-profit-making basis. Most non-maintained special schools are run by major charities or charitable trusts.

NRS: Nottingham Rehab Supplies

NSPCC: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

NWB: Non-Weight Bearing

O

Ofsted: Office for Standards in Education, a non-Ministerial government department established under the Education (Schools) Act 1992 to take responsibility for the inspection of all schools in England. Her Majesty’s Inspectors (HMI) form its professional arm.

OOH: Out of Hours

OOS: Out of School Team

OT*: Occupational Therapist

* Specific SEND acronyms 

P

Parent: Under section 576 of the Education Act 1996, the term ‘parent’ includes any person who is not a parent of the child, but has parental responsibility or who cares for him or her.

Parent Carer Forum: A Parent Carer Forum is a group of parents and carers of disabled children who work with local authorities, education, health and other providers to make sure the services they plan and deliver meet the needs of disabled children and families.

Parent Partnership (now known as Information Advice and Support Services) : Parent Partnership Services provide advice and information to children with SEN or disabilities, their parents, and young people with SEN or disabilities. They provide neutral and factual support on the special educational needs system to help the children, their parents and young people to play an active and informed role in their education and care. Although funded by local authorities, Parent Partnership Services are run either at arm’s length from the local authority or by a voluntary organisation to ensure children, their parents and young people have confidence in them.

Pathway Plan: A pathway plan says what support you will have when you leave care. This will include your health needs, living arrangements, plans for the future (schools or getting a job), help with money and/or help with family.

Patoss*: Professional Association of Teachers of Students with Specific Learning Difficulties

PD*: Physical disability

PEACH*: Parents for the Early Intervention of Autism in Children

PECs: Picture Exchange Communication System. A variety of strategies have been used to help children with autism acquire functional communication skills. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a unique communication training program that was developed as a means of circumventing some shortcomings associatd with these strategies.

Person Centred: Focussed on what is important to an individual

Personal Budget: A Personal Budget is an amount of money identified by the local authority to deliver provision set out in an EHC plan where the parent or young person is involved in securing that provision. The funds can be held directly by the parent or young person, or may be held and managed on their behalf by the local authority, school, college or other organisation or individual and used to commission the support specified in the EHC plan.

Personal Education Plan: An element of a Care Plan maintained by a local authority in respect of a looked after child, which sets out the education needs of the child. If a looked after child has an EHC plan, the regular reviews of the EHC plan should, where possible, coincide with reviews of the Personal Education Plan.

PMD: Physical and Medical Difficulties.

PMLD*: Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties

Portage: Planned, home-based educational support for pre-school children with special educational needs. Local authorities usually provide Portage services. The Portage service is named after the town of Portage, Wisconsin, USA. There is an active and extensive network of Portage services in the UK, developed by the National Portage Association, which provides a Code of Practice and accredited training.

PR: Parental Responsibility

PT: Physiotherapy

Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) : Any school established and maintained by a local authority under section 19 (2) of the Education Act 1996 which is specially organised to provide education for pupils who would otherwise not receive suitable education because of illness, exclusion or any other reason.

* Specific SEND acronyms 

S

SA: Statutory Assessment

SALT: Speech and Language Therapy

SAR: Subject Access Request

SB: Spina Bifida

SC: Social Care

SCA: Social care assessment

Secure remand: A secure remand is when you're waiting for your trial but need to be kept in a secure training centre or young offender institution for safe guarding reasons.

Secure training centres: A secure training centre is a place for children 17 or under who have broken the law more than once. Here they will have school classes and learn skills for their futures. 

SEN Unit: SEN Units are special provisions within a mainstream school where the children are taught mainly within separate classes. Units: receive additional funding from the Local Authority specifically for the purpose of the provision; cater for a specific type or types of SEN (e.g. autistic spectrum disorders); are usually for pupils with statements of SEN (but may also provide support for pupils at School Action Plus).

SEN*: Special Educational Needs

SENCO*: Special Educational Needs Coordinator

SEND*: Special Educational Needs and Disability

Service Children’s Education (SCE): SCE oversees the education of UK Service children abroad. It is funded by the Ministry of Defence and operates its own schools as well as providing advice to parents on UK and overseas schools.

SESS*: Sensory Education Support Service (now SEST)

SEST*: Sensory Education and Support Team

Special Educational Needs (SEN): A child or young person has SEN if they have a learning difficulty or disability which calls for special educational provision to be made for him or her. A child of compulsory school age or a young person has a learning difficulty or disability if he or she has a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of others of the same age, or has a disability which prevents or hinders him or her from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for others of the same age in mainstream schools or mainstream post-16 institutions.

SHDC: South Holland District Council

SKDC: South Kesteven District Council

SLD*: Severe Learning Difficulty

SOS: Signs of Safety

SP: Support Panel

Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator (SENCO): A qualified teacher in a school or maintained nursery school who has responsibility for co-ordinating SEN provision. In a small school, the headteacher or deputy may take on this role. In larger schools there may be a team of SENCOs. Other early years settings in group provision arrangements are expected to identify an individual to perform the role of SENCO and childminders are encouraged to do so, possibly sharing the role between them where they are registered with an agency.

Special Educational Provision: Special educational provision is provision that is different from or additional to that normally available to pupils or students of the same age, which is designed to help children and young people with SEN or disabilities to access the National Curriculum at school or to study at college. 

Special Guardianship Order: A special guardianship order allows someone to make a parent's decisions for a child who is under 18

Special School: A school which is specifically organised to make special educational provision for pupils with SEN. Special schools maintained by the local authority comprise community special schools and foundation special schools, and non-maintained (independent) special schools that are approved by the Secretary of State under Section 342 of the Education Act 1996.

Speech and Language Therapy: Speech and language therapy is a health care profession, the role and aim of which is to enable children, young people and adults with speech, language and communication difficulties (and associated difficulties with eating and swallowing) to reach their maximum communication potential and achieve independence in all aspects of life.

SpLD*: Specific Learning Difficulties

STA: Standards and Testing Agency

STAPS *: Specialist Teaching and Applied Psychology Service (now STT & Psychology)

STT: Specialist Teaching Team

Supplementary Schools: offer educational support (language, core curriculum, faith and culture) and other out-of-school activities to children attending mainstream schools. They are established and managed by community members, generally on a voluntary basis.

SW: Social Worker

* Specific SEND acronyms 

T

TA: Teaching Assistant

TAC: Team around the child

Targeted: Services for those with additional needs. These are often assessed.

TFL: Through Floor Lift

TLC: Teaching and Learning Centre

TX*: Treatment

* Specific SEND acronyms 

U

Universal: A service available to everyone without assessment

UPN: Unique Pupil Number

UTC: University Technical college  is a type of free school in England that is led by a sponsor university. The university supports the curriculum development of the UTC, provides professional development opportunities for teachers, and guides suitably qualified students to foundation and full degrees.

V

VI*: Visually Impaired

Virtual School Head (VSH): The Virtual School Head (VSH) is an officer of a local authority who leads a virtual school team that tracks the progress of children looked after by the authority as if they attended a single school. The Children and Families Act 2014 requires every local authority to appoint an officer who is an employee of that or another authority to discharge this duty.

Voluntary Aided School: In a voluntary aided school the governing body is the employer and the admissions authority. The school's land and buildings (apart from playing fields which are normally owned by local autority) will normally be owned by a charitable foundation.

Voluntary Controlled School: is a state-funded school in  which a foundation or trust(possibly religious in nature) has some formal influence in the running of the school.

* Specific SEND acronyms 

W

WLDC: West Lindsey District Council

W

WLDC: West Lindsey District Council

W

WLDC: West Lindsey District Council

Y

YOS: Youth Offending Service (formerly YOT - Youth Offending Team)

Young person: A person over compulsory school age (the end of the academic year in which they turn 16). From this point the right to make decisions about matters covered by the Children and Families Act 2014 applies to the young person directly, rather than to their parents. 

young offender institution: If you are between 18 and 20 and have broken the law you will go to a young offender intuition. Some Y.O.Is accept 15-17 year olds. These children are called juvenile offenders. 

Youth Justice Board (YJB): The Youth Justice Board for England and Wales is an executive non-departmental public body. Its board members are appointed by the Secretary of State for Justice. The YJB oversees the youth justice system in England and Wales, works to prevent offending and reoffending by children and young people under the age of 18 and ensures that custody for them is safe, secure and addresses the causes of their offending behaviour.

Youth Offending Team (YOT): Youth offending teams are part of local authorities and are separate from the police and the justice system. They work with local agencies including the police, probation officers, health, children’s services, schools and the local community, to run local crime prevention programmes, help young people at the police station if they’re arrested, help young people and their families at court, supervise young people serving a community sentence and stay in touch with a young person if they’re sentenced to custody.

YPLA: Young People's Learning Agency

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